Electrolyte Balance - Calcium : Nursing Course


YOU CAN TAKE THE NURSING CLASS TEST RIGHT AWAY




OR REVIEW THE FOLLOWING NURSING CLASS KNOWLEDGE BLOCKS


A condition in which the bones become weak because of low bone density levels is:

osteoporosis

Rationale: Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by bones that are thin and fragile, and can fracture easily because of low bone mass. The bones and teeth contain over 99% of the calcium in the human body. Calcium is also found in the blood, muscles, and other tissue. Having enough calcium intake in the diet is essential in helping to prevent osteoporosis and helping to prevent the loss of bone mass. However, calcium alone cannot protect a person from osteoporosis. It can also be caused by certain medications or diseases, such as smoking, alcoholism, and lack of estrogen. The concentration of calcium in the body tends to decline as we age because it is released from the body through sweat, skin cells, and waste. The bones in the body are constantly breaking down and regenerating, and using calcium to grow new bone. Maintaining adequate calcium levels is essential throughout life to preserve bone mass, which is achieved through adequate calcium intake in foods and supplements.


Calcium and phosphorus levels are regulated in the body by the hormone:

parathyroid hormone (PTH)

Rationale: The parathyroid hormone is produced by the parathyroid glands, and is involved in the control of calcium levels in the body. The parathyroid glands are 4 small glands that sit on the thyroid gland in the neck. They produce hormones that regulate the calcium, phosphorus, and Vitamin D levels in the body. When the calcium level drops, the parathyroid gland reacts to restore normal levels. This is achieved by a stimulation in the mucosa of the intestine to absorb more calcium, by a rapid mobilization of calcium form the bone, and the excretion of phosphate through the kidneys. Through this method, the level of phosphorus is also controlled by the parathyroid glands.


Cardiovascular effects of hypercalcemia are:

hypertension and AV blocks

Rationale:

Chronic kidney disease and acute pancreatitis are common causes of:

hypocalcemia

Rationale:

Hyperthyroidism can often lead to:

hypercalcemia

Rationale:

The EKG tracing of a patient with hypocalcemia will show:

prolonged ST segments and QT intervals

Rationale:

The most abundant mineral in the body, used primarily to keep the bones and teeth strong is the:

calcium

Rationale:

The normal range for calcium in the blood is:

8.5- 10.5 mg/dL

Rationale:

The primary source of calcium in the diet comes from:

dairy products

Rationale:

When calcium levels are imbalanced in the body, the electrolyte that is inversely related is:

phosphorus

Rationale:

AND THEN TAKE THE CLASS TEST