Electrolyte Balance - Calcium : Nursing Course


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OR REVIEW THE FOLLOWING NURSING CLASS KNOWLEDGE BLOCKS


The most abundant mineral in the body, used primarily to keep the bones and teeth strong is the:

calcium

Rationale: Calcium performs a number of basic functions in your body. Your body uses 99 percent of its calcium to keep your bones and teeth strong, which supports the skeletal structure and function. The rest of the calcium in your body plays key roles in blood clotting, muscle contraction and nerve function. Calcium enters the body primarily through diet, and must constantly be eaten to build bone and maintain proper blood levels. Cells use calcium to activate certain enzymes and transport ions across the cellular membrane. As an electrolyte, calcium is also one of the key players in maintaining a regular heartbeat by performing pacemaker functions in the heart.


When calcium levels are imbalanced in the body, the electrolyte that is inversely related is:

phosphorus

Rationale: Calcium and phosphorus are inversely related in the blood. When the level of one of these electrolytes is high or low, the other electrolyte is opposite. The two electrolytes perform similar functions, and are regulated the same way in the body. Calcium and phosphorus also have similar food sources. However, they reciprocate each other. Calcium is a positively charged electrolyte and is primarily found outside of the cells. Phosphorus is a negatively charged electrolyte, and is found inside of the cells.


Calcium and phosphorus levels are regulated in the body by the hormone:

parathyroid hormone (PTH)

Rationale:

The primary source of calcium in the diet comes from:

dairy products

Rationale:

The normal range for calcium in the blood is:

8.5- 10.5 mg/dL

Rationale:

Hyperthyroidism can often lead to:

hypercalcemia

Rationale:

Cardiovascular effects of hypercalcemia are:

hypertension and AV blocks

Rationale:

Chronic kidney disease and acute pancreatitis are common causes of:

hypocalcemia

Rationale:

The EKG tracing of a patient with hypocalcemia will show:

prolonged ST segments and QT intervals

Rationale:

A condition in which the bones become weak because of low bone density levels is:

osteoporosis

Rationale:

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