Electrolyte Balance- Magnesium : Nursing Course


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When treating muscle weakness in patients with hypermagnesemia, the medication to be administered is:

calcium gluconate

Rationale: With hypermagnesemia, patients may experience muscle weakness and decreased cardiac function. In order to counteract these effects, calcium gluconate may be administered because calcium acts as an antagonist in neuromuscular and cardiac function. If the patients does not have any renal impairment, then IV diuretics should also be administered. When renal function is impaired and the patient is symptomatic from hypermagnesemia, then dialysis may be indicated.


Patients with cirrhosis and chronic alcoholism may present with:

hypomagnesemia

Rationale: Hypomagnesemia is often present in critically ill patients, and is associated with a high mortality rate. Common causes of hypomagnesemia are chronic alcoholism, diuretic therapy, cirrhosis, pancreatitis, and preeclampsia. Patient may also have hypomagnesemia as a result of loss of magnesium through the GI tract, as in excessive diarrhea or gastric suctioning. Treating the underlying cause is essential to balancing magnesium levels, though this is often difficult because of chronic health conditions.


Hypomagnesemia increases a patient's risk of ventricular dysrhythmias because it increases:

cardiac muscle irritability

Rationale:

The normal range of magnesium in the body is:

1.5-2.5 mg/dL

Rationale:

EKG changes that are present with hypermagnesemia is:

prolonged PR interval

Rationale:

The major cause of hypermagnesemia is:

renal failure

Rationale:

Signs and symptoms of hypomagnesemia that a patient may present with are:

muscle weakness and tremors

Rationale:

EKG changes that may be present with patients that have low magnesium levels are:

flat or inverted T wave

Rationale:

A patient that has ingested large amounts of antacids or laxatives may present with:

hypermagnesemia

Rationale:

An electrolyte that is found primarily in the cell, and is responsible for energy production and protein metabolism is:

magnesium

Rationale:

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