Electrolyte Balance- Magnesium : Nursing Course


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A patient that has ingested large amounts of antacids or laxatives may present with:

hypermagnesemia

Rationale: Antacids and laxatives that may be taken for problems with the GI system contain magnesium. When patients take excessive amount of these medications, hypermagnesemia can occur. For slightly elevated levels of magnesium, treatment is to stop taking the antacids. When levels are at a critical level, or patients are symptomatic, the treatment should be more aggressive.


Hypomagnesemia increases a patient's risk of ventricular dysrhythmias because it increases:

cardiac muscle irritability

Rationale: Cardiac muscle irritability makes a patient with hypomagnesemia at a high risk of developing ventricular dysrhythmia's. This is especially important in patients that are recovering from a recent myocardial infarction (MI). When magnesium levels are maintained at an adequate level for patients that have suffered an acute MI, there is significant improvement in ventricular function, and the mortality rates are reduced.


Patients with cirrhosis and chronic alcoholism may present with:

hypomagnesemia

Rationale:

The major cause of hypermagnesemia is:

renal failure

Rationale:

Signs and symptoms of hypomagnesemia that a patient may present with are:

muscle weakness and tremors

Rationale:

EKG changes that are present with hypermagnesemia is:

prolonged PR interval

Rationale:

EKG changes that may be present with patients that have low magnesium levels are:

flat or inverted T wave

Rationale:

An electrolyte that is found primarily in the cell, and is responsible for energy production and protein metabolism is:

magnesium

Rationale:

The normal range of magnesium in the body is:

1.5-2.5 mg/dL

Rationale:

When treating muscle weakness in patients with hypermagnesemia, the medication to be administered is:

calcium gluconate

Rationale:

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