Electrolyte Balance - Sodium : Nursing Course


YOU CAN TAKE THE NURSING CLASS TEST RIGHT AWAY




OR REVIEW THE FOLLOWING NURSING CLASS KNOWLEDGE BLOCKS


A patient that has had an excessive amount of fluid intake is at risk of developing:

hyponatremia

Rationale: Hyponatremia is a sodium level that is below 135 mEq/L, and is the most common of all electrolyte disorders. This occurs when the body loses more water than it takes in, or when excess water dilutes the normal sodium concentration. This may be caused by numerous medical conditions, or may be caused when a patient drinks an excessive amount of water. Medical conditions that may cause hyponatremia are congestive heart failure or syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone secretion (SIADH).


Controlling fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balances in the body is the job of the:

kidneys

Rationale: The balance of water in the body is achieved by assuring that the amount of water that is ingested equals that amount of water that is excreted. The amount of fluid that we ingest is regulated by our behaviors, such as the cravings for water and food. The excretion portion of the process is controlled and regulated by the kidneys. The main way that the kidneys can directly control the volume of bodily fluids is by the amount of water excreted in the urine. Either the kidneys can conserve water by producing urine that is concentrated like plasma, or they can rid the body of excess water by producing urine that is diluted.


Patients that have mild hyponatremia should be placed on:

fluid restrictions

Rationale:

Severe hyponatremia, with a sodium level below 110mEq/L, can result in:

permanent neurological damage

Rationale:

The main symptoms that a patient with hypernatremia may present with are:

thirsty, tachycardic, and lethargic

Rationale:

The most abundant electrolyte in the extracellular fluid that plays an important role in fluid balance is:

sodium

Rationale:

The normal range of sodium that should be present in the body is:

135-145 mEq/L

Rationale:

Treatment for severe hyponatremia is to administer:

hypertonic saline (3% NaCl)

Rationale:

When a patient is hypernatremic because of vomiting and diarrhea, the main treatment is:

fluid replacement

Rationale:

When caring for a patient that has had vomiting and diarrhea for 2 days, you recognize that they are at a high risk of developing:

hypernatremia

Rationale:

AND THEN TAKE THE CLASS TEST