Intravenous Fluids : Nursing Course


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A commonly infused hypotonic solution is:

.45 sodium chloride

Rationale: A hypotonic solution puts more water in the serum that what is found inside of the cells. This results in water moving into the cells, which causes them to swell. .45 sodium chloride is a commonly used hypotonic solution in the medical setting. It may also have dextrose or potassium added to it in order to replace electrolytes that have been lost, usually through the gastrointestinal system. Hypotonic solutions are often given to patients to replace fluid volume, but should be stopped when a patient is able to drink enough to meet their fluid needs.


A crystalloid solution that has an osmolarity about equal to serum is:

isotonic solution

Rationale: Crystalloid solutions are classified as isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic, which is determined by comparing the osmolarity of the solution to serum, or normal blood plasma. The type of solution that is given to a patient depends on the whether the goal is to change or maintain body fluid status. The normal range of osmolarity for serum is between 280 and 300 mOsm/liter. Isotonic solutions expand into the intravascular compartments and increase circulating volume in the cells. Isotonic solutions do not result in any significant shifts across cellular or vascular membranes.


A crystalloid solution that has an osmolarity lower than serum is:

hypotonic

Rationale:

A crystalloid solution with an osmolarity higher than serum is:

hypertonic solution

Rationale:

An example of a commonly used isotonic solution is:

.9 sodium chloride

Rationale:

An example of a hypertonic solution is one that contains more than:

10% dextrose

Rationale:

Fluid moves between the intracellular and extracellular compartments through:

osmosis

Rationale:

Fluid that is outside of the cells, such as intravascular fluid, interstitial fluid, and transcellular fluid is in the:

extracellular compartment

Rationale:

Most fluid in the body is found in the:

intracellular compartment

Rationale:

The two different classifications of IV fluids are:

crystalloid and colloid

Rationale:

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