ABG Interpretation : Nursing Course


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OR REVIEW THE FOLLOWING NURSING CLASS KNOWLEDGE BLOCKS


The measurement of the acidity or alkalinity of the blood is:

pH

Rationale: pH is proportional to the level of hydrogen ions in the blood. The normal blood pH range is 7.35 to 7.45. In order for normal metabolism to be maintained, the blood must stay in this range at all times. When the pH level is below 7.35, the blood is acidotic. When the pH level is above 7.45, the blood is alkalotic.


When a patient develops an acid-base imbalance, the body attempts to:

compensate

Rationale: When an acid-base imbalance occurs, the body attempts to compensate through several mechanisms. There are three buffer systems in the body that attempt to return the pH to a normal level. These three buffer systems are protein, respiratory, and renal. A patient can be uncompensated, partially compensate, or fully compensated. When a patient is uncompensated or partially compensated, the pH remains outside of the normal range. When a patient is fully compensated, the pH returns to the normal range, but the other values in the ABG are abnormal.


When a patient has a pH less than 7.35 and a CO2 greater than 45, they are in:

respiratory acidosis

Rationale:

A patient that overdoses on antacids than contain bicarbonate may develop:

metabolic alkalosis

Rationale:

A diabetic patient that has a build up of lactic acid in the bloodstream is at risk of developing:

metabolic acidosis

Rationale:

A blood test that measures the acid-base balance of the blood and monitors oxygenation status is an:

arterial blood gas (ABG)

Rationale:

The kidneys assist with maintaining the pH level in the blood by excreting or retaining:

bicarbonate (HCO3)

Rationale:

When interpreting an arterial blood gas (ABG), the three steps to follow are to examine the:

pH, CO2, and HCO3

Rationale:

A patient that is having an anxiety attacks and is hyperventilating is at a high risk of developing:

respiratory alkalosis

Rationale:

The normal range for carbon dioxide in the blood is:

34-45 mm Hg

Rationale:

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