Caring with a Patient with Chest Pain : Nursing Course


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OR REVIEW THE FOLLOWING NURSING CLASS KNOWLEDGE BLOCKS


Muscle damage to the heart because of a lack of blood flow is a:

myocardial infarction

Rationale: A heart attack occurs when the blood flow in a coronary artery to the heart is blocked, usually because of a blood clot. Interrupted blood flow to the heart can damage or destroy a part of the heart muscle. A myocardial infarction (MI) occurs as a result of prolonged myocardial ischemia, which can lead to irreversible injury and necrosis of myocardial tissue because of the inadequate blood supply.


The most common sign of a heart attack is:

chest pain

Rationale: The most significant sign of a heart attack is chest pain, which is often described as severe retrosternal chest pain, and is crushing or squeezing in nature. The pain usually occurs in the center of the chest for more than a few minutes that is not relieved with nitroglycerin. The pain may be constant, while some patients may complain of pain that comes and goes. There are times when there is pain in other areas of the upper body, such as the jaw, shoulder, one or both arms, back, and stomach area. This pain may make a person feel short of breath, or have a difficult time with breathing. The pain may produce anxiety, restlessness and fear, resulting in an increase in heart rate, blood pressure and respiratory rate. Others common symptoms include cold sweat, nausea, and dizziness.


The most immediate diagnostic tool to diagnose a myocardial infarction is:

EKG

Rationale:

Prior to administering nitroglycerin to a patient for chest pain, be sure to check their:

blood pressure

Rationale:

A medication that reduces mortality rates for patients that are suffering from chest pain by inhibiting the action of platelets is:

aspirin

Rationale:

Chest pain that occurs if an area of heart muscle is not getting enough oxygen, but without permanent muscle damage is:

angina

Rationale:

A medical procedure in which a catheter is inserted into a vessel so the doctor can diagnose and treat heart conditions is:

cardiac catheterization

Rationale:

When blockage is present during a cardiac catheterization, the doctor may open the narrow pathways by performing a:

coronary angioplasty

Rationale:

To help prevent blockages in the coronary arteries after an angioplasty, the doctor may insert a:

stent

Rationale:

When caring for a patient with chest pain, remember the basic steps of care through the mnemonic:

MONA

Rationale:

AND THEN TAKE THE CLASS TEST