IV Complications : Nursing Course


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Inflammation of a blood vessel is:

phlebitis

Rationale: Phlebitis is a term that means inflammation of a blood vessel. It can occur for a variety of reasons, such as when the pH of a medication or fluid being administered through an IV irritates the vein, the vein is too small for the IV, the IV is left in place for an extended period of time, or the needle is too large for the vein. The inflammation causes localized redness and warmth at the IV insertion site and a short distance along the vein in which the IV has been placed. Signs of phlebitis are pain, a red line above the IV site, and a vein that may feel hard and warm to touch. If a phlebitis occurs, the IV should be stopped and a warm compress applied for comfort. Watch the patient for any future signs of infection.


Inflammation of a vein in which a blood clot is involved is:

thrombophlebitis

Rationale: Thrombophlebitis is similar to phlebitis but a thrombus, or blood clot, is also involved. The longer an IV stays inserted in a vein, it begins to irritate the vein, which causes the body to trigger its clotting mechanisms. When a thrombophlebitis occurs, the area around where the clot has formed begins to harden. The site is usually painful, with swelling and induration. If thrombophlebitis occurs, stop the IV. Warm compresses can help with the pain, and the extremity should be elevated to promote circulation. The small clot that occurs with a thrombophlebitis is not as harmful as a blood clot that forms in the the larger veins of the body, and usually approves within a week or two without any major problems.


During an IV infusion, fluid that leaks from a vein into the surrounding tissue is:

infiltration

Rationale:

Leakage of blood from the vein into surrounding tissue results in a:

hematoma

Rationale:

Air that enters the vein through IV tubing is:

air embolism

Rationale:

When the area surrounding an IV site is reddened, with pain and drainage, the patient may have developed an:

infection

Rationale:

When blood flow through a vein is obstructed by a local thrombus, it is known as:

thrombosis

Rationale:

A systemic complication that occurs if the tip of the IV catheter shears off while the IV is being inserted is:

catheter embolism

Rationale:

If a patient develops an air embolism, the position they should be placed in is:

trendelenburg position, on left side

Rationale:

When dangerous medications or fluids that are intended for IV use leak from the vein into the surrounding tissue, the result is:

extravasation

Rationale:

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