IV Complications : Nursing Course


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Inflammation of a blood vessel is:

phlebitis

Rationale: Phlebitis is a term that means inflammation of a blood vessel. It can occur for a variety of reasons, such as when the pH of a medication or fluid being administered through an IV irritates the vein, the vein is too small for the IV, the IV is left in place for an extended period of time, or the needle is too large for the vein. The inflammation causes localized redness and warmth at the IV insertion site and a short distance along the vein in which the IV has been placed. Signs of phlebitis are pain, a red line above the IV site, and a vein that may feel hard and warm to touch. If a phlebitis occurs, the IV should be stopped and a warm compress applied for comfort. Watch the patient for any future signs of infection.


When the area surrounding an IV site is reddened, with pain and drainage, the patient may have developed an:

infection

Rationale: An infection can occur at any place where there is a break in the integrity of the skin. When an IV is started, the potential is there since the skin in no longer intact. The risk of infection is low when correct cleansing procedures are followed when starting and caring for an IV. An infected IV site will appear red, and be warm and painful to touch. Depending on the length of time the infection has been present, the patient may also have a fever. If an infection is suspected, stop the infusion immediately, and remove the catheter. The catheter should be sent for culture to determine the type of bacteria that may be occurring. The IV should be restarted in another extremity, and the site should be monitored closely. Antibiotics may be necessary to treat the infection.


When dangerous medications or fluids that are intended for IV use leak from the vein into the surrounding tissue, the result is:

extravasation

Rationale:

If a patient develops an air embolism, the position they should be placed in is:

trendelenburg position, on left side

Rationale:

When blood flow through a vein is obstructed by a local thrombus, it is known as:

thrombosis

Rationale:

During an IV infusion, fluid that leaks from a vein into the surrounding tissue is:

infiltration

Rationale:

Leakage of blood from the vein into surrounding tissue results in a:

hematoma

Rationale:

Air that enters the vein through IV tubing is:

air embolism

Rationale:

A systemic complication that occurs if the tip of the IV catheter shears off while the IV is being inserted is:

catheter embolism

Rationale:

Inflammation of a vein in which a blood clot is involved is:

thrombophlebitis

Rationale:

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