Clinical Basics - Fluids and Electrolyte : Nursing Course


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Emergency treatment for hyperkalemia (high potassium) is:

Rapid IV administration of insulin and dextrose

Rationale: Although kayexalate does treat hyperkalemia, it is not for hyperkalemic emergencies. It works through the bowels by eliminating excess potassium in the stool, which is too slow of a process.


All of the following are signs of fluid-volume deficit except:

Distended neck veins

Rationale: Distended neck veins are a sign of excess fluid. Poor skin turgor, pale and dry mucous membranes, dizziness, decreased blood pressure and decreased urination are signs of fluid-volume deficit and if caught early, can be treated with intravenous isotonic sodium chloride.


When you suspect a patient may have a high magnesium level, you should frequently monitor:

Deep tendon reflexes

Rationale:

Your patient has a diagnosis of low magnesium in his blood. You tell him to each which of the following foods high in magnesium:

Green leafy vegetables

Rationale:

0.9% Normal saline is commonly infused intravenously to keep patients hydrated. It's solution is:

Isotonic

Rationale:

Your patient has a diagnosis of hypercalcemia. You instruct the to monitor their urine for:

Kidney stones

Rationale:

Signs of fluid-volume excess include all of the following except:

Weight loss

Rationale:

Your patient has been diagnosed with hypophosphalemia. You know that while you are monitoring phosphorus levels, you should also be monitoring:

Calcium, sodium and chloride

Rationale:

A positive Chvostek's sign is related to the following condition:

Hypocalcemia

Rationale:

In the United States, body fluids are measured in:

Milliliters

Rationale:

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