Pediatric Cardiac Disorders : Nursing Course


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Heart defects that are present at birth are referred to as:

congenital.

Rationale: "Congenital" means present at birth. So, a heart defect that is present at birth is called a congenital heart defect.


The nurse assigned to care for a child with coarctation of the aorta expects that the blood pressure would be ____ above, and ____ below the point of coarctation.

higher, lower.

Rationale: Blood pressure is higher above the narrowing, and lower below the narrowing. In order to get blood to the lower body, the blood pressure above the coarctation has to rise. Older children may have headaches from too much pressure in the vessels in the head, or cramps in the legs or abdomen from too little blood flow in that region. The effects of coarctation depend on how narrowed the aorta is.


__________ is a congenital heart defect that includes pulmonary stenosis, right ventricular hypertrophy, ventricular septal defect, and an overriding aorta. The clinical signs and symptoms associated with Tetralogy of Fallot are: profound cyanosis at birth with episodes of severe cyanosis and hypoxia, systolic ejection murmur, clubbing of the nail beds, dyspnea, squatting, poor growth, mental slowness, syncope, and cerebrovascular disease. Because deoxygenated (blue) blood can flow directly out to the body, children with this defect often appear bluish.

Tetralogy of Fallot.

Rationale:

The chamber of the heart that has the largest blood supply is the:

left ventricle.

Rationale:

Congenital heart defects that allow blood from one side of the heart to mix with blood from the other side are referred to as:

septal defects.

Rationale:

The International Congenital Heart Surgery Nomenclature was developed in 2000 to provide a classification system for congenital heart diseases. The two major classifications are:

cyanotic and acyanotic.

Rationale:

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